Zero Carbon Buildings Today and in the Future 2016


Date: Thursday, 08/Sep/2016

9:00am - 9:30am

R1: Registration - Day 1

Ground floor atrium 

9:30am - 9:35am

W1: Welcome - Day 1

Parkside Lecture Theatre P350 

9:35am - 10:05am

K1: Keynote 1

Parkside Lecture Theatre P350 


A Systems Approach to Energy Positive Buildings

Phillip John Jones

cardiff university, United Kingdom

This paper will discuss a systems approach to the design of energy positive buildings. It will refer to research and design experience of combining technologies for reduced energy demand, renewable energy supply and energy storage, integrated into the building design. Recent developments in solar PV applications and solar thermal applications will be introduced; including PV integrated roofs and transpired solar thermal air collectors. Applications through demonstration and design projects will be presented, including the SOLCER energy positive house project. Computer models for evaluating design options will be introduced at various scales, including; simple design tools, dynamic building energy modeling and urban scale applications. The paper will review the opportunities and barriers to achieving an energy positive built environment.


10:05am - 11:05am

D1: Design methods and design tools 1

Parkside Lecture Theatre P350 


NewTrend - New integrated methodology and Tools for Retrofit design towards a next generation of ENergy efficient and sustainable buildings and Districts

Edwina Cramp, Valeria Ferrando

IES, United Kingdom

The existing built environment is responsible for 40% of total energy consumption in Europe. However, the replacement rate of the existing building stock remains at only 2% per year. As it stands in fact, the design and construction process is inefficient and effective communication does not always occur among stakeholders in the process. The problem grows exponentially for renovation projects, as the project increases in complexity due to the additional constraints related to existing structures and occupants. Within NewTREND project, a new approach for an effective collaboration within refurbishment projects is proposed. The new retrofit design methodology takes into account the best practices of existing methodologies but includes the adoption of simulation tools at early design stage, ensuring energy efficiency is included as a key criteria. The methodology sets recommendations for the data collection, enabling a range of analysis, including energy modelling, to be conducted more easily and from the very beginning of the design process. All the phases of refurbishment, from data collection to concept creation to operation, through detailed design and construction are addressed and energy and performance is considered as a priority for the design. The intensive participation of building occupants into the retrofit design is foreseen.

Mixed Mode Ventilation & Cooling in Commercial Buildings: Concept for Passive Systems Integration

John P Brittle, Mahroo M Eftekhari, Steven K Firth

Loughborough University, United Kingdom

The works sets out basic design concepts to enable architects and building services engineers to incorporate passive ventilation and cooling systems into mixed mode operation building. These systems include solar chimneys, ventilated double facades, rain screen facades, PDEC and Earth Ducts. This paper includes a high level review of case studies, climate design strategy in order to make suitable passive system selection, building geometric integration strategy to offer basic concepts for all passive systems, control strategy via BEMS identifying relationship with HVAC operations. The discussion includes current difficulties in design and factors that influence passive system performance including feasible application and limiting factors.


11:05am - 11:30am

B1: Coffee break

Ground floor atrium 

11:30am - 1:00pm

C1: Zero carbon projects and climate change

Parkside Lecture Theatre P350 


The minus carbon and plus energy refugee shelter.

Marwa Dabaieh

Lund University, Sweden

This proposal in hand will discuss a refugee shelter proposal for a 37 m² earth shelter that could be built with the help of 7 workers in 11 working days. It is an experimental and participatory living lab methodology for an eco-cycle home concept.The design formula is calculated based on the needs of a family for 4 members and construction time based on workers productivity per hour and weather limitations. No wastes are generated during the building construction, operation and after end of life. It is equipped with all basic human facilities. The main building skeleton is from rammed earth, straw and clay while clay bricks and wood for roofing. The building is minus carbon because it uses lime and straw, were both takes CO during construction and operation. It is a plus energy because it is calculated to produce more energy that it consumes and transport it to the grid and use it back in case of need. Passive concepts in heating, cooling and day lighting are used.The beneficiaries are not only the refugees but also for the majority of urban poor in the world.

Creating a Zero Carbon Building Under Budget & Ahead of Schedule: Intergrated Project Delivery Makes It Possible

Shafraaz Kaba

Manasc Isaac Architects, Canada

Meeting the challenge of building a zero carbon commercial building in a cold climate is one ambitious goal; building it under budget and ahead of schedule is totally unheard of. Learn how the team working on the Mosaic Centre for Conscious Community and Commerce did just that with the belief that ‘Normal is Broken’. The Mosaic Centre (or MC4 for short) used an Integrated Project Delivery procurement process that was paired with LEAN design and construction practices. This tied the owner, architect and contractor together with a tri-party contract. This contract helped shift the paradigm of how design and construction decisions were made, based on values, speed and budget. LEAN allowed the entire team to look for and minimize waste in all aspects of the design and construction process. MC4 is on track to achieve LEED Platinum and Living Building Challenge Net Zero petal certification, making it the most northern, cold-climate net-zero energy /zero carbon and high performance building in North America. Achieving these lofty goals are the result of changing the culture of the design and construction team, to a new paradigm that values collaboration as a means to greater profits.


Ramona Sygula1, Oliver Beyer2

1University of Stuttgart, Germany; 2TU Dresden, Germany

Buildings cause nearly one third of the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Accordingly, energy saving efforts like increased insulation and energy-efficient heating systems have been developed and discussed a lot especially during the 2000’s. The construction phase with its emissions, mostly linked to the utilized materials, has not been studied as intensively. However, it has been stressed recently by several authors that with the emergence of low- and zero-energy buildings, the pre-use phase of buildings becomes more important, and moreover, that the early life cycle emissions should be given higher weight due to the imminent need to rapidly reduce the GHG loads.

This study documents a cradle-to-gate Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the embodied GHGs of a low-energy house in Finland and presents a critical review of materials used for construction. The aim was twofold: (1) to evaluate the embodied GHGs caused, and (2) to analyze how the change of the insulation material to a less emission intensive one changes the total GHGs. The study will show (1) that the overall embodied emissions for the house are relatively low due to high share of wood-based materials, and (2) that further material substitutions can significantly further reduce the emission load.


1:00pm - 2:00pm

L1: Lunch break

Ground floor atrium 

2:00pm - 3:30pm

D2: Design methods and design tools 2

Parkside Lecture Theatre P350 


Performance of the ZCR passive cooling design - Thermal comfort in the Philippines

Sören Eikemeier, Robert Wimmer

GrAT - Center for Appropriate Technology/TU Vienna, Austria

According to the overall objective of the EU switchasia project Zero Carbon Resorts (ZCR) a radical new approach for sustainable architecture is being realized in the Philippines on Palawan near Puerto Princesa City, in order to meet modern comfort demands and high user expectations with the lowest possible environmental footprint. This prototype building combines vernacular architecture elements and indigenous materials with a contemporary architecture and up to date technologies for zero energy buildings.

But for a further distribution the functionality of the concept has to be proven. A comprehensive monitoring of the indoor environment and the local outdoor climate was carried out to state that thermal comfort in tropical climate can be achieved by this new design approach without a HVAC to decrease the energy demand for space cooling. Additional to an implemented long-time monitoring system for measuring the air temperature and relative humidity in each room, a special focus was given on surface temperatures in the building as well as the prediction of thermal comfort using an adapted PMV/PPD method for natural ventilated buildings in tropical climates.

IMPRESS - New Easy to Install and Manufacture Pre-Fabricated Modules Supported by a BIM based Integrated Design Process

Nick Purshouse

Integrated Environmental Solutions, United Kingdom

IMPRESS is an EC H2020 funded project which will develop innovative prefabricated panels to reduce energy demand while preserving or improving the building aesthetics An Iterative Design Methodology will be developed, incorporating all stages of the Design-Construct-Install-Operate process, integrated with a cloud based BIM database. A Decision Support Software Tool will help the end user choose the most suitable renovation option.

The project began in June 2015 and ends in September 2018, by which time it will have installed the new panels two demonstration sites (Romania and UK) and will have conducted monitoring and evaluation to validate the concept and performance of the process,

Taking a Passivhaus certified retrofit system onto scaled-up zero carbon trajectory

Ljubomir Jankovic, Shadi Basurra

Birmingham City University, United Kingdom

The paper describes collaboration a between industry and academia in enhancing a Passivhaus certified system for retrofit and putting it onto a zero carbon trajectory. The system was initially developed for on-site stick construction, using fixed insulation thickness and under the current UK climate. The collaboration with the university has contributed to a product development that is adaptable to different buildings and future climates, achieved by multi-objective optimisation. This process considers carbon emissions and comfort as functions to be optimised, and applies a number of design variables, taking discrete values within specified ranges of these variables, and producing numerous combinations for a single design. Dynamic simulations are conducted over these combinations, producing a solution space that is subsequently searched by a genetic algorithm for optimum solutions. A resultant chart gives a range of trade-off solutions that enable the design team to enhance retrofit system and make it zero carbon ready. In addition to the design optimisation, the scaling up of this system is facilitated by onsite 3D laser scanning, which enables a transition to an offsite solution developed in flying factories. The paper reports on a practical application of this work to designing a retrofit for two semi-detached houses.


3:30pm - 3:45pm

B2: Coffee break

Ground floor atrium 

3:45pm - 5:15pm

C2: Case studies

Parkside Lecture Theatre P350 



Elisa Durán Pérez, Alberto Monreal Aliaga

Arquitecturas Naturales SC, Spain

We present an experimental house built in Zaragoza using and updating traditional techniques and sustainable construction methods with local and natural materials that obtains nearly zero energy consumption.

It has prioritized passive design strategies, orientation, termal inertia, south sunlight capture by mobile glass atrium and thermal storage wall, natural cross ventilation and rainwater collection to reduce energy and resource consumption nearly Zero, getting in summer warmest days (45ºC) interior temperatures about 25ºC without turn on the cooling system. So it´s minimized the need to start heating, cooling and domestic hot water system: aerothermal under floor, complemented by fireplace and solar panels.

The recycled materials used: wooden beams from a ruined construction, remains of bricks and ceramic rubble with lime mortar for storage walls, allows that the energy consumed during the lifecycle is almost zero.

Seven ceramic vaults 6cm thick support a roof live garden, protects and fuses with the landscape, so the house seems to be hidden under a rolling hill changing appearance each season and optimizing the material consumption. It allows minimizing the intense noise level caused by the barking dogs, airport and military airbase, 100dB, because ceramic vaults and earth cover also present an excellent acoustic behavior.

The Energy Showcase: Practical Experience with a Pioneering ‘Zero Carbon’ House

David Olivier1, Derek Alan Taylor2,3

1Energy Advisory Associates, United Kingdom; 2Altechnica, United Kingdom; 3EERU, Open University, United Kingdom

The technology in this solar house is largely a synthesis based on research, experience and practice in other countries, above all the USA and Canada, Sweden and Denmark, plus more recently a few other European countries. But it is put together by UK workers using mainly UK materials.

It is intended as a model for new housing in the open countryside, typified by sites with no mains services except water, electricity and telephone. Many such plots are developed by self-builders or farmers, not by ‘volume developers’ or residential social landlords.

The paper reviews the practical experience with the design and construction of the building and the environmental influences on the choice of construction materials. It sums up early experience with the occupied dwelling.

There are problems in accounting correctly for greenhouse gas emissions. The authors set out how net zero carbon (‘ZC’) aims can be significantly compromised by erroneous assumptions and conventions. It sets out how this project has approached the ZC goal and encourages further work by others.

It draws a number of conclusions as regards UK energy policy. It lists the main priorities if the UK wishes to encourage others to pursue similar projects.

Case Study on affordable low energy community houses using strawbale self-build

Cathie Eberlin1, Andrew Kirby2

1Leading Energy, United Kingdom; 2LED Architects Ltd

This paper follows the progress of how an affordable and sustainable design for 6 strawbale ‘self-build’ houses was developed by an ecologically driven architectural practice in Devon. The aim of the project was to develop a low energy, environmental design with natural materials and renewables with the overarching concern being to mitigate the risks in using a “self- build” approach whilst retaining affordability.

The project aimed to deliver a design and methodology for the Community Land Trust to enable further lower cost sustainable houses to be delivered in high value rural areas. The planning target was for Code for Sustainable Homes level 4 but the aim was to exceed energy performance to deliver energy bills.

The paper reviews how the construction methodology was adapted, the suitability of design for a self-build model, success of design features such as the sun-room with thermal mass wall, and project costs. The paper also summarises the findings of the post occupancy experience thus far including the quality of the build and energy performance achieved, feedback from the residents/self-builders on the process, and performance against the initial objectives of achieving superior houses in design and energy consumption at an affordable price.


5:15pm - 5:30pm

TP: New building process

Parkside Lecture Theatre P350 



Harald Professner

Cree GmbH, Austria

Whether national or international, the current construction process – both in economic, environmental and social terms - reached its limits. Worldwide there are no other industries which hold on to old traditions for so many years, as the construction industry still does. The development - both sides of planning, as well as execution - of new processes, new tools, new materials and new methods almost stands still. Due to their excellence know-how, European architects and engineers in the past have produced major international construction sites. But currently, they fail on such projects precisely because of the existing building process. The enormous energy and resource consumption in the building sector allows us no longer to build according to the old patterns of planning and building. A fundamental rethinking is required which dimension will affect all those who are now involved in construction processes.

Systematized planing with wood allows us to pre-fab big size modules in high quality and low weight, which can especially be produced locally. This means less waste, less transports, local workmanship and high quality. Each building based on wood is a carbon storage building and therefore good for our environment and health.


5:30pm - 5:45pm

E1: Plenary and close - Day 1

Parkside Lecture Theatre P350 

7:30pm - 9:30pm

CD: Conference Dinner



Date: Friday, 09/Sep/2016

9:00am - 9:30am

R2: Registration - Day 2

Ground floor atrium 

9:30am - 9:35am

W2: Welcome - Day 2

Parkside Lecture Theatre P350 

9:35am - 10:35am

A1: Advances in new materials and systems

Parkside Lecture Theatre P350 


New construction materials combining self-cleaning and heat storage properties

Sandra Lucas

University of Greenwich, United Kingdom

Following growing awareness concerning indoor air quality and energy efficiency, two different solutions became prominent in this research field: latent heat storage capabilities (for energy savings) and photocatalytic mortars (for elimination of air pollutants and self-cleaning). Indoor air quality in buildings is now going far beyond the simple indoor temperature regulation. Aspects like contamination of the indoor air by pollutants, are gaining importance and being included into building regulations. These functionalities, heat storage and self-cleaning, have been always considered separately, so the products available so far only include one. With the increasing demand for new and more innovative materials, future research will tend to include several functionalities in one single product.

Within this work a new multifunctional mortar combining energy storage, self-cleaning and air depolluting capabilities has been developed. The paper discuss the manipulation of mortars microstructure, by studying the microstructural modifications with different amounts of PCM (phase change material) and nanoparticles of titanium dioxide. Using the correct combination of both additives the mechanical strength will not be compromised. The paper demonstrates that it is possible to develop new advanced mortars for building applications, more complex and with multiple functions, opening a new field of opportunities for the construction sector.

Fuel cell micro combined heat and power in buildings

Michaela Kendall


Deployment of fuel cell (FC) technology in buildings is key to achieving carbon emission targets nationally in the UK, and globally. Fuel cells are electrochemical devices using fuels such as hydrocarbons or hydrogen, plus air, to output an electric current and heat. Commercialisation of FCs is now dependent on achieving challenging costs targets to market products; technology performance is already proven. This paper describes micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (mSOFC) technology designed by Midlands company Adelan. In buildings, mSOFCs are used in micro-combined heat and power (mCHP), which delivers distributed energy and lower emissions by displacing domestic boilers. In the EU funded NewGenSOFC project, a costs study of a 0.5kW mCHP system confirmed that mass manufacture of mSOFCs would achieve the economies of scale necessary to market products at competitive costs; mSOFC component costs were reducible by ~90% and system costs by >75% according to the independent productionisation Partners. In this paper, we report a feasibility study into the market and environmental impacts of mass manufacturing the Adelan 0.5kW fuel cell micro-combined heat and power (FC mCHP) unit. Manufacturing is considered in the UK and Turkey, using a flexible cost model, with marketing and sales activities focused in Europe.


10:35am - 11:05am

K2: Keynote 2

Parkside Lecture Theatre P350 


Delivering Retrofit at Scale with the TCosy™: Achieving zero carbon, eradicating fuel poverty and generating a return on investment - Ron Beattie, Beattie Passive

Ron Beattie

Beattie Passive, United Kingdom

The poor energy efficiency of many of our UK homes combined with fuel poverty, future energy security issues, and reaching the 2050 carbon emission targets calls for a dramatic new way to retrofit buildings. The Beattie Passive TCosy™ can regenerate existing housing stock to zero carbon, eradicate fuel poverty, regenerate local communities and provide a return on capital investment. This fast, offsite system retrofits the UK’s diverse portfolio of housing stock to Passivhaus standard, dramatically reducing energy bills, creating a healthier more comfortable environment to live in and transforming the external façade.


11:05am - 11:30am

B3: Coffee break

Ground floor atrium 

11:30am - 1:00pm

D3: Design methods and design tools 3 + Post occupancy evaluation

Parkside Lecture Theatre P350 


Fast response building energy simulation in support to low carbon design and retrofit

Marco Picco, Marco Marengo

University of Brighton, United Kingdom

The proposed paper will investigate the benefits of applying building performance simulation throughout the design of new buildings and energy retrofit, with a major focus on low and zero carbon buildings.

During the discussion, the state of the art on building simulation and the major drawbacks of the applications of such advanced techniques will also be highlighted, including an explanation on why such tools are not commonly used in practice, especially when focusing on the first stages of building design.

Finally the paper will propose a possible solution to the mentioned problem by introducing a fast response building performance simulation tool able to deliver dynamic energy simulation of buildings in limited time and with a limited number of output but maintaining a reasonable level of accuracy.

It is expected this tool could greatly help in the integration of advanced energy evaluation techniques in the design process of new buildings and feasibility analysis for building retrofits by greatly reducing time requirements and costs while still being able to deliver useful results to the design process. Examples and case studies will be presented to show the benefits obtainable by applying the presented tool compared to traditional more complex simulation tools.

Analysis of accuracy of calibrated simulation models before and after retrofit

Shadi Saleh Basurra, Ljubomir Jankovic

Birmingham City University, United Kingdom

This paper reports on a practical process that evaluates retrofit technology for zero carbon performance where calibration outcome is used to quantify uncertainty in building performance prediction before and after retrofit.

This process is performed in two stages. The first stage is to develop and calibrate the model before retrofitting. This model is used to design the parameters for retrofit. In the second stage, we update the model to include all retrofit improvements done to the property and perform further calibration since the model can incorporate further uncertainties caused by retrofit improvements. This allows us to understand if the calibrated model generated before retrofit still applies after retrofit. Moreover, it identifies the most sensitive parameters, and whether or not they are physically observable.

Detailed monitored data, such as internal and external air temperature, solar radiation, gas and electricity consumptions are used to calibrate the model before and after the retrofit. For calibration, we use K Nearest Neighbour to conduct parameter sensitivity analysis with the aim to fine tune the model and establish one-to-ne relationship between the simulated and actual building performance.

The paper explains the differences in the model calibration before and after the retrofit and discusses the building design implications.

The Investigation and Analysis of Indoor Air Quality and Energy Consumption of Air Purification in Beijing

Bo Zhang, Hong Yang, Na Li

Beijing University of Technology, China, People's Republic of

The problem of air pollution in northern China has become increasingly serious. Frequent occurrence of fog and haze forces people to pay more and more attention to indoor air quality.To investigate the influence degree of the haze and the energy consumption of air purifier in Beijing.This paper measures the value of indoor pm2.5, analyses the official data of pm2.5, summaries questionnaires from some residential areas, and investigates their methods to improve indoor air quality.This research found that within the next two or three years, there will be 72.8% families using the air purifier to improve indoor air quality. Besides, it can calculate the annual air purification energy consumption of residential building in Beijing.The significance of this paper is to increase the awareness of haze severity. The damage of haze not only endangers the health condition of human, but also wastes considerable energy.


1:00pm - 2:00pm

L2: Lunch break

Ground floor atrium 

2:00pm - 3:30pm

Z1: Zero Carbon Cities, Economics, and Legislation

Parkside Lecture Theatre P350 


Nearly Zero-Energy Building Renovation Action Plans for Cities

Riikka Johanna Holopainen1, Birgitta Goven2, Tarja Häkkinen1

1VTT, Finland; 2City of Stockholm, Sweden

IEE NeZeR project (2014-2017) promotes implementation and smart integration of Nearly Zero-Energy Building Renovation (NZEBR) measures in the European renovation market. NeZeR-project has developed NZEBR city action plans for Stockholm, Rotterdam, Amersfoort, Timisoara, Sestao, Helsinki, Espoo and Porvoo. These action plans are based on already existing strategies and refurbishment plans of the participating cities and NeZeR-project results about available technical solutions, business models and feasibility of NZEBR over traditional renovation. Information about the social situation and energy use has been used as input when choosing the targets for the action plans. The action plans also build upon experiences gained from earlier projects implemented in these and other European cities.

The action plans are focused on the long term transformation of the existing buildings, including measurable targets on energy use and the share of energy from renewable resources. A strong focus lies also on behavioural issues and the participation and cooperation with the inhabitants.

City action plans will foster the implementation of the EPBD and assist in transforming the existing building stock into more energy-efficient and ecologically sustainable with a reduced energy consumption and increased utilization of renewable energy leading to a reduction of total environmental impacts.

Building on the Paris Agreement: making the case for embodied carbon intensity targets in construction

Jannik Giesekam1, John Barrett1, Danielle Densley Tingley2

1University of Leeds, United Kingdom; 2University of Sheffield, United Kingdom

The Green Construction Board’s Low Carbon Routemap for the Built Environment and its 2015 update set out the need for substantial reductions in embodied carbon in addition to operational emissions, and recommend the introduction of embodied carbon intensity targets (CITs). CITs challenge design teams to deliver buildings with supply chain carbon emissions below a set level per functional unit. Such targets have already been adopted by progressive clients in certain industry sectors. However, target levels are usually determined as a reduction relative to comparable projects or a notional reference building. There is no means for ensuring consistency with sector or national mitigation targets; nor a mechanism for ratcheting up ambitions as anticipated by the Paris Agreement on climate change. Many sectors remain unclear what functional unit is most appropriate and at what design level targets should be introduced. Similarly, the range of long-term policy and market drivers that could ensure targets are implemented and enforced at scale across the industry have yet to be determined. This paper will offer insight on these topics, drawing upon analysis with the novel UK Buildings and Infrastructure Embodied Carbon model, and discuss how CITs could in future be determined, revised, implemented and enforced.

Using unit of energy as complementary currency for scaling up zero carbon retrofit

Michael David Burnett, Ljubomir Jankovic

Birmingham City University, United Kingdom

Most efforts towards achieving net zero emissions from buildings have focused on technological solutions, taking the notion of money-as-it-is for granted. This paper reports on an alternative approach, in which money-as-it-is, in this case the pound sterling, is replaced by money-as-it-could-be in the form of one kilowatt-hour. The research is conducted alongside a live retrofit project in the social housing sector, in which a solar photovoltaic system is required in order to achieve net zero emissions, but in the absence of conventional funding, alternative funding needs to be found.

The supply chain members are identified as: Housing Association, Retrofit Provider, Photovoltaic Supplier, and Householder. Using evidence from independent research that complementary currency can be issued in respect of a renewable resource, the chosen resource is the solar energy landing on the roofs of the Housing Association buildings. A conceptual model of credit and utility flow has been developed, in which the Housing Association issues the currency that flows through the system until completing the full circle.

The research is conducted in collaboration with a local city currency project, and opportunities for combining the two as means for scaling up zero carbon retrofit projects are investigated.


3:30pm - 3:45pm

B4: Coffee break

Ground floor atrium 

3:45pm - 4:15pm

K3: Keynote 3

Parkside Lecture Theatre P350 


Birmingham Zero Carbon House – Retrofit Beyond Passivhaus Standard

John Theodore Christophers1, Ljubomir Jankovic2

1Associated Architects, United Kingdom; 2Zero Carbon Lab, Birmingham City University

Birmingham Zero Carbon House, originally built over 170 years ago, has achieved zero carbon status through retrofit. This paper reports on the results of several years of monitoring and compares its performance with the Passivhaus standard.

The upgrade of the thermal envelope has resulted in U-values of 0.1 (W/m2K in floors and walls, 0.08 (W/m2K) in the roof, and air tightness of 0.34 m3/h/m2. MVHR has been installed and used on demand, utilising natural ventilation whenever possible. The house is heated infrequently with a wood burning stove using branches fallen from trees in the garden. A solar PV system provides electricity, and a solar thermal system provides domestic hot water heating.

Monitoring has determined the heat load of 3.17 W/m2/year, which compares with ≤15 W/m2/year in Passivhaus standard. The primary energy demand without renewable energy taken into account is 44.33 kWh/m2/year, which compares with ≤ 120 kWh/m2/year in Passivhaus standard, applicable in design stage. However, the actual primary energy demand that includes renewable energy contribution is 5.43 kWh/m2/year. With no energy bills and an annual income of £1,500 for electricity, leading to annual return on investment of 7.72%, this approach has important implications for scaling up of retrofit.


4:15pm - 4:45pm

P1: Post occupancy evaluation

Parkside Lecture Theatre P350 



Fatima Abdallah1, Ali Abdallah1, Shadi Basurra2

1Faculty of Computing, Engineering and the Built Environment, Birmingham City University, United Kingdom; 2Faculty of Arts, Design and the Media, Birmingham City University, United Kingdom

Existing electricity feedback systems provide home occupants with real-time consumption data to enable them to control their consumption. However, these systems provide abstract consumption data that is not related to the occupants surrounding. Although there are some attempts to enrich consumption data with some context information, the presented feedback is not enough to inform decisions of how to conserve electricity. Therefore, this paper provides a rich definition of electricity consumption context, which can be used to provide sensible feedback to users. The obtained context elements can be categorized into three context types: User Context, Appliances Context, and Environment Context. Finally, different implications for the application of a context-aware feedback system are presented showing how the obtained context definition could be used to provide understandable feedback.


4:45pm - 5:15pm

F1: Future solutions and tools - speaker(s) TBC

Parkside Lecture Theatre P350 

5:15pm - 5:30pm

E2: Plenary and close - Day 2

Parkside Lecture Theatre P350 


Date: Saturday, 10/Sep/2016

11:00am - 1:00pm

T1: Technical visit to Birmingham Zero Carbon House

Zero Carbon House